Gardner theorized that there are
and that we all use one or two for the
most effective learning. Our cultures
teach, test, reinforce and reward primarily
two kinds of intelligence: verbal/linguistic
and logical/mathematical. His theory proposes
that there are at least eight other kinds
of intelligence that are equally important.
They are "languages" that most
people speak, and that cut through cultural,
educational, and ability differences.
The mind is not comprised of a single
representation or a single language of
representations. Rather, we harbor numerous
internal representations in our minds.
Some scholars speak of "modules of
mind," some of a "society of
mind," in this case it is "multiple
intelligences." They include :
Verbal Linguistic intelligence
(sensitive to the meaning and order of
words as in a poet). Use activities that
involve hearing, listening, impromptu
or formal speaking, tongue twisters, humor,
oral or silent reading, documentation,
creative writing, spelling, journal, poetry.
intelligence (able to handle chains
of reasoning and recognize patterns
and orders as in a scientist). Use activities
that involve abstract symbols/formulas,
outlining, graphic organizers, numeric
sequences, calculation, deciphering
codes, problem solving.
Musical intelligence (sensitive
to pitch, melody, rhythm, and tone as
in a composer). Use activities that
involve audio tape, music recitals,
singing on key, whistling, humming,
environmental sounds, percussion vibrations,
rhythmic patterns, music composition,
(perceive the world accurately and try
to re-create or transform aspects of
that world as in a sculptor or airplane
pilot). Use activities that involve
art, pictures, sculpture, drawings,
doodling, mind mapping, patterns/designs,
color schemes, active imagination, imagery,
Bodily Kinesthetic intelligence
(able to use the body skillfully
and handle objects adroitly, as in an
athlete or dancer). Use activities that
involve role playing, physical gestures,
drama, inventing, ball passing, sports
games, physical exercise, body language,
(understand people and relationship
as in a salesman or teacher). learners
think by bouncing ideas off of each
other (socializers who are people smart).
Use activities that involve group projects,
division of labor, sensing others' motives,
receiving/giving feedback, collaboration
(possess access to one's emotional
life as a means to understand oneself
and others exhibited by individuals
with accurate views of themselves).
Use activities that involve emotional
processing, silent reflection methods,
thinking strategies, concentration skills,
higher order reasoning, "centering"
practices, meta-cognitive techniques.
to the intricacies and subtleties in
nature such as Charles Darwin and Meriwether
Lewis of Lewis and Clark fame). Use
activities that involve bringing the
outdoors into the class, relating to
the natural world, charting, mapping
changes, observing wildlife, keeping
journals or logs.